Gas-solid reaction based over one-micrometer thick stable perovskite films for efficient solar cells and modules

Zonghao Liu, Longbin Qiu, Emilio J. Juarez-Perez, Zafer Hawash, Taehoon Kim, Yan Jiang, Zhifang Wu, Sonia R. Raga, Luis K. Ono, Shengzhong Frank Liu, Yabing Qi

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73 Citations (Scopus)


Besides high efficiency, the stability and reproducibility of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are also key for their commercialization. Herein, we report a simple perovskite formation method to fabricate perovskite films with thickness over 1 μm in ambient condition on the basis of the fast gas-solid reaction of chlorine-incorporated hydrogen lead triiodide and methylamine gas. The resultant thick and smooth chlorine-incorporated perovskite films exhibit full coverage, improved crystallinity, low surface roughness and low thickness variation. The resultant PSCs achieve an average power conversion efficiency of 19.1 ± 0.4% with good reproducibility. Meanwhile, this method enables an active area efficiency of 15.3% for 5 cm × 5 cm solar modules. The un-encapsulated PSCs exhibit an excellent T80 lifetime exceeding 1600 h under continuous operation conditions in dry nitrogen environment.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes

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