Galnon, a galanin receptor agonist, improves intrinsic cortical bone tissue properties but exacerbates bone loss in an ovariectomised rat model

H. W. McGowan, J. A. Schuijers, B. L. Grills, S. J. McDonald, A. C. McDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Previous studies have shown galanin (GAL) injections onto mouse calvaria increased bone thickness and osteoblast number. This study investigated the effects of the GAL receptor agonist galnon on bone loss using the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model. Methods: OVX rats were treated with either vehicle or galnon for 6 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations, osseous cell gene expression, morphological and biomechanical properties of the skeleton were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment with galnon increased RANKL:OPG gene ratio (p<0.001) plus expression of TNF-α (p<0.05) and cathepsin K (p < 0.05). μCT analyses revealed galnon-treated OVX animals had reduced trabecular and cortical morphology compared to control animals. Biomechanically, galnon OVX animals required similar peak force to failure to that of control OVX animals although galnon treatment did enhance the mechanical properties of Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Conclusions: Our research suggests that galnon, a GAL receptor agonist, may enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in OVX rats. Although galnon reduced bone volume, biomechanical testing revealed that bone of galnon-treated animals was mechanically superior per unit area. Taken together, galnon simultaneously improves the intrinsic quality of cortical bone whilst stimulating osteoclastic activity in the OVX rat model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-172
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions
Volume14
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Bone
  • Galanin
  • Galnon
  • Ovariectomy

Cite this

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title = "Galnon, a galanin receptor agonist, improves intrinsic cortical bone tissue properties but exacerbates bone loss in an ovariectomised rat model",
abstract = "Objectives: Previous studies have shown galanin (GAL) injections onto mouse calvaria increased bone thickness and osteoblast number. This study investigated the effects of the GAL receptor agonist galnon on bone loss using the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model. Methods: OVX rats were treated with either vehicle or galnon for 6 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations, osseous cell gene expression, morphological and biomechanical properties of the skeleton were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment with galnon increased RANKL:OPG gene ratio (p<0.001) plus expression of TNF-α (p<0.05) and cathepsin K (p < 0.05). μCT analyses revealed galnon-treated OVX animals had reduced trabecular and cortical morphology compared to control animals. Biomechanically, galnon OVX animals required similar peak force to failure to that of control OVX animals although galnon treatment did enhance the mechanical properties of Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Conclusions: Our research suggests that galnon, a GAL receptor agonist, may enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in OVX rats. Although galnon reduced bone volume, biomechanical testing revealed that bone of galnon-treated animals was mechanically superior per unit area. Taken together, galnon simultaneously improves the intrinsic quality of cortical bone whilst stimulating osteoclastic activity in the OVX rat model.",
keywords = "Biomechanics, Bone, Galanin, Galnon, Ovariectomy",
author = "McGowan, {H. W.} and Schuijers, {J. A.} and Grills, {B. L.} and McDonald, {S. J.} and McDonald, {A. C.}",
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Galnon, a galanin receptor agonist, improves intrinsic cortical bone tissue properties but exacerbates bone loss in an ovariectomised rat model. / McGowan, H. W.; Schuijers, J. A.; Grills, B. L.; McDonald, S. J.; McDonald, A. C.

In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions, Vol. 14, No. 2, 01.01.2014, p. 162-172.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Galnon, a galanin receptor agonist, improves intrinsic cortical bone tissue properties but exacerbates bone loss in an ovariectomised rat model

AU - McGowan, H. W.

AU - Schuijers, J. A.

AU - Grills, B. L.

AU - McDonald, S. J.

AU - McDonald, A. C.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Objectives: Previous studies have shown galanin (GAL) injections onto mouse calvaria increased bone thickness and osteoblast number. This study investigated the effects of the GAL receptor agonist galnon on bone loss using the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model. Methods: OVX rats were treated with either vehicle or galnon for 6 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations, osseous cell gene expression, morphological and biomechanical properties of the skeleton were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment with galnon increased RANKL:OPG gene ratio (p<0.001) plus expression of TNF-α (p<0.05) and cathepsin K (p < 0.05). μCT analyses revealed galnon-treated OVX animals had reduced trabecular and cortical morphology compared to control animals. Biomechanically, galnon OVX animals required similar peak force to failure to that of control OVX animals although galnon treatment did enhance the mechanical properties of Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Conclusions: Our research suggests that galnon, a GAL receptor agonist, may enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in OVX rats. Although galnon reduced bone volume, biomechanical testing revealed that bone of galnon-treated animals was mechanically superior per unit area. Taken together, galnon simultaneously improves the intrinsic quality of cortical bone whilst stimulating osteoclastic activity in the OVX rat model.

AB - Objectives: Previous studies have shown galanin (GAL) injections onto mouse calvaria increased bone thickness and osteoblast number. This study investigated the effects of the GAL receptor agonist galnon on bone loss using the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model. Methods: OVX rats were treated with either vehicle or galnon for 6 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations, osseous cell gene expression, morphological and biomechanical properties of the skeleton were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment with galnon increased RANKL:OPG gene ratio (p<0.001) plus expression of TNF-α (p<0.05) and cathepsin K (p < 0.05). μCT analyses revealed galnon-treated OVX animals had reduced trabecular and cortical morphology compared to control animals. Biomechanically, galnon OVX animals required similar peak force to failure to that of control OVX animals although galnon treatment did enhance the mechanical properties of Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Conclusions: Our research suggests that galnon, a GAL receptor agonist, may enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in OVX rats. Although galnon reduced bone volume, biomechanical testing revealed that bone of galnon-treated animals was mechanically superior per unit area. Taken together, galnon simultaneously improves the intrinsic quality of cortical bone whilst stimulating osteoclastic activity in the OVX rat model.

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