Gain face, but lose happiness? It depends on how much money you have

Xin-an Zhang, Peng Tian, Nicholas Grigoriou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of face consciousness on happiness and the moderating role of financial situation on this relationship. We first examined our hypotheses in study 1 in a particular setting of consumption, and replicated our findings in study 2 in a more generalized setting of interpersonal situations. The two studies produced essentially consistent results. We found individuals high on face consciousness tend to be less happy, and the negative association between face consciousness and happiness is ameliorated by their financial situation. These results revealed the importance of face consciousness as an individual difference in predicting happiness. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-125
Number of pages14
JournalAsian Journal of Social Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Face consciousness
  • Financial situation
  • Happiness
  • Subjective well-being

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