Functional rare and low frequency variants in BLK and BANK1 contribute to human lupus

Simon H. Jiang, Vicki Athanasopoulos, Julia I. Ellyard, Aaron Chuah, Jean Cappello, Amelia Cook, Savit B. Prabhu, Jacob Cardenas, Jinghua Gu, Maurice Stanley, Jonathan A. Roco, Ilenia Papa, Mehmet Yabas, Giles D. Walters, Gaetan Burgio, Kathryn McKeon, James M. Byers, Charlotte Burrin, Anselm Enders, Lisa A. MiosgePablo F. Canete, Marija Jelusic, Velibor Tasic, Adrian C. Lungu, Stephen I. Alexander, Arthur R. Kitching, David A. Fulcher, Nan Shen, Todor Arsov, Paul A. Gatenby, Jeff J. Babon, Dominic F. Mallon, Carmen de Lucas Collantes, Eric A. Stone, Philip Wu, Matthew A. Field, Thomas D. Andrews, Eun Cho, Virginia Pascual, Matthew C. Cook, Carola G. Vinuesa

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease. It is thought that many common variant gene loci of weak effect act additively to predispose to common autoimmune diseases, while the contribution of rare variants remains unclear. Here we describe that rare coding variants in lupus-risk genes are present in most SLE patients and healthy controls. We demonstrate the functional consequences of rare and low frequency missense variants in the interacting proteins BLK and BANK1, which are present alone, or in combination, in a substantial proportion of lupus patients. The rare variants found in patients, but not those found exclusively in controls, impair suppression of IRF5 and type-I IFN in human B cell lines and increase pathogenic lymphocytes in lupus-prone mice. Thus, rare gene variants are common in SLE and likely contribute to genetic risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2201
Number of pages12
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

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