Functional Proteins from Biovalorization of Peanut Meal: Advances in Process Technology and Applications

Subramoni Hariharan, Antonio Patti, Amit Arora

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Environmental costs associated with meat production have necessitated researchers and food manufacturers to explore alternative sources of high-quality protein, especially from plant origin. Proteins from peanuts and peanut-by products are high-quality, matching industrial standards and nutritional requirements. This review contributes to recent developments in the production of proteins from peanut and peanut meal. Conventional processing techniques such as hot-pressing kernels, use of solvents in oil removal, and employing harsh acids and alkalis denature the protein and damage its functional properties, limiting its use in food formulations. Controlled hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis between 1 and 10%) using neutral and alkaline proteases can extract proteins and improve peanut proteins’ functional properties, including solubility, emulsification, and foaming activity. Peanut proteins can potentially be incorporated into meat analogues, bread, soups, confectionery, frozen desserts, and cakes. Recently, pretreatment techniques (microwave, ultrasound, high pressure, and atmospheric cold plasma) have been explored to enhance protein extraction and improve protein functionalities. However, most of the literature on physicochemical pretreatment techniques has been limited to the lab scale and has not been analysed at the pilot scale. Peanut-derived peptides also exhibit antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and anti-thrombotic properties. There exists a potential to incorporate these peptides into high-fat foods to retard oxidation. These peptides can also be consumed as dietary supplements for regulating blood pressure. Further research is required to analyse the sensory attributes and shelf lives of these novel products. In addition, animal models or clinical trials need to be conducted to validate these results on a larger scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-24
Number of pages12
JournalPlant Foods for Human Nutrition
Volume78
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Biovalorization
  • Defatted peanut meal
  • Enzymatic hydrolysates
  • Functional properties
  • Peanut protein

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