Functional outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in boileau class 1 and class 2 proximal humeral fracture sequelae: A meta-analysis and systematic review

Nina Chua, James R. Onggo, Mithun Nambiar, Jason D. Onggo, Kemble K. Wang, Richard Pennington, Raphael Hau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is an increasingly popular salvage treatment option for proximal humeral fracture (PHF) sequelae. This meta-analysis aimed to conduct a pooled analysis of functional outcomes of RTSA in PHF sequelae, with subgroup analysis comparing between intracapsular (Class 1) and extracapsular (Class 2) PHF sequelae. Methods: A multi-database search (PubMed, OVID, EMBASE) was performed according to PRISMA guidelines on 27th July 2020. Data from all published literature meeting inclusion criteria were extracted and analysed. Findings: Eleven studies were included, comprising 359 shoulders (167 Class 1 and 192 Class 2). The mean age was 68.2 years, and the mean time between injury and surgery was 49 months, (1–516 months). Constant score and forward flexion improved by 31.8 (95%CI: 30.5–33.1, p < 0.001) and 60o (95%CI: 58o-62o, p < 0.001) respectively between pre-operative and post-operative values for both groups. Constant scores were better in Class 1 patients (MD = 3.60, 95%CI: 1.0–6.2, p < 0.001) pre-operatively and post-operatively (MD = 7.4, 95%CI: 5.8–9.0, p < 0.001). Forward flexion was significantly better in Class 1 patients (MD = 13o, 95%CI: 7o-17o, p < 0.001) pre-operatively, but was slightly better in Class 2 patients post-operatively (MD = 7o, 95%CI: 4o-10o, p < 0.001). Overall complication rate was 16.8%. Conclusion: Salvage RTSA is effective for PHF sequelae, with multiple factors contributing to the high complication rate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalShoulder and Elbow
Issue number3 suppl
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023


  • fracture sequelae
  • non-union
  • proximal humerus fractures
  • reverse total shoulder arthroplasty
  • reverse total shoulder replacement

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