Frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection

Carol A. Holden, Giuliana F. Fuscaldo, Peter Jackson, Alex Cato, Graeme J. Southwick, Ron Hauser, Peter D. Temple-Smith, Robert I. McLachlan

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To report the fertilization rate and pregnancy results for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa. Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive ICSI cycles. Setting: Tertiary referral center for infertility. Patient(s): Infertile couples in whom 39 patients (59 ICSI cycles) required the use of frozen- thawed epididymal spermatozoa. As no cycles were performed using fresh epididymal spermatozoa, outcomes were compared with those of 130 couples (170 ICSI cycles) using fresh ejaculated spermatozoa for severe oligoasthenozoospermia-teratozoospermia, in which 20%, compared with lower vitality, both the fertilization (56% versus 22%) and embryo cleavage (91% versus 57%) rates were significantly greater. Conclusion(s): The routine collection and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa at microsurgery allows multiple ICSI treatment cycles with success rates similar to those of ejaculated spermatozoa. However, when the vitality of aspirated spermatozoa is

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-87
Number of pages7
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • cryopreservation
  • Epididymal sperm
  • ICSI

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