Frown gives game away: Affect sensitive tutoring systems for elementary mathematics

Abdolhossein Sarrafzadeh, Chao Fan, Farhad Dadgostar, Samuel Alexander, Chris Messom

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


An important factor in the success of human one-to-one tutoring is the tutor's ability to identify and respond to affective cues. However, current Intelligent Tutoring Systems model students solely on their cognitive, and not affective, state. Automated facial expression analysis makes it possible for computers to identify affective cues by analysing images of learners' facial expressions. A new generation of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Affective Tutoring Systems, is being developed at Massey University in New Zealand. An important component of this system is a facial expression analysis component that was implemented using a fuzzy approach. This fuzzy facial expression analysis approach and future directions are discussed in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2004 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC 2004
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 2004 - The Hague, Netherlands
Duration: 10 Oct 200413 Oct 2004 (Proceedings)


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 2004
Abbreviated titleSMC 2004
CityThe Hague
Internet address


  • Affect
  • Facial expressions
  • Gesture
  • Intelligent tutoring systems
  • Mathematics

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