From transactions to transformations: a new world order in the study of leadership?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


This article reviews recent developments in leadership. It discusses the shift towards the language of performance outcomes used increasingly to describe leaders and leadership and the changing political and economic environments in which educational leaders act. Theories have polarized around transformational and managerial leadership, the former emphasizing the personalities and action of individuals, and the latter stressing a rational, structural approach. Both create the impression of newness and difference but display strong continuities with previous theories of leadership. The significance on follower perspectives of leadership is highlighted and alternative methodological approaches emphasizing historical and comparative contexts are outlined. The paper concludes with an example of visionary leadership in education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-30
Number of pages24
JournalEducational Management Administration and Leadership
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1996

Cite this