Framing variation and intersectional identities within Indonesia's ethnic Chinese minority

Jessica Birnie-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Variationist researchers are increasingly adopting intersectionality approaches to analyse identity-linked practice. However, the field of sociolinguistic variation is yet to embrace the full ramifications of intersectionality as an analytical framework. The current paper offers a new method for integrating intersectional approaches into variationist studies by operationalising Blommaert, Jan & Anna De Fina. 2017. Chronotopic identities: On the timespace organization of who we are. In Anna De Fina & Jeremy Wegner (eds.), Diversity and super-diversity, 1-14. Washington: Georgetown University Press chronotopic frame theory. This method is used to examine how the intersectionality of ethnic, national, and peer-group identities is structured and reproduced in different ways through Chinese Indonesian youths' selection of multilingual variants of an agreement marker in their peer-to-peer interactions at educational institutions in Pontianak city, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The results illustrate how chronotopic frame approaches to studying identity-linked variation heed calls for integrations of intersectionality to move beyond accounting for intracategorical complexity and instead examine the dynamic mutual constitution of social categories that better represents marginalised people's lived experiences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-366
Number of pages28
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Chinese Indonesians
  • chronotopes
  • ethnicity
  • frames
  • identity
  • intersectionality
  • variation

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