Foundations and challenges of low-inertia systems (Invited Paper)

Federico Milano, Florian Dorfler, Gabriela Hug, David J. Hill, Gregor Verbič

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

734 Citations (Scopus)


The electric power system is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented changes. Environmental and sustainability concerns lead to replacement of a significant share of conventional fossil fuel-based power plants with renewable energy resources. This transition involves the major challenge of substituting synchronous machines and their well-known dynamics and controllers with power electronics-interfaced generation whose regulation and interaction with the rest of the system is yet to be fully understood. In this article, we review the challenges of such low-inertia power systems, and survey the solutions that have been put forward thus far. We strive to concisely summarize the laid-out scientific foundations as well as the practical experiences of industrial and academic demonstration projects. We touch upon the topics of power system stability, modeling, and control, and we particularly focus on the role of frequency, inertia, as well as control of power converters and from the demand-side.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC 2018)
EditorsMario Paolone, Christian Rehtanz
Place of PublicationPiscataway NJ USA
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781910963098, 9781910963104
ISBN (Print)9781910963104
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
EventPower Systems Computation Conference 2018 - Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 11 Jun 201815 Jun 2018
Conference number: 20th


ConferencePower Systems Computation Conference 2018
Abbreviated titlePSCC 2018
Internet address


  • Converter-interfaced generation (CIG)
  • Frequency stability
  • Grid-forming control
  • Low-inertia power systems
  • Rate of change of frequency (RoCoF)

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