Formulation development and optimization of a novel Cremophore EL-based nanoemulsion using ultrasound cavitation

Siah Ying Tang, Sivakumar Manickam, Tan Khang Wei, Billa Nashiru

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160 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the influence of main emulsion composition variables, namely drug loading, oil content, emulsifier content as well as the effect of the ultrasonic operating parameters such as pre-mixing time, ultrasonic amplitude, and irradiation time on the properties of aspirin-loaded nanoemulsions. The two main emulsion properties studied as response variables were: mean droplet size and polydispersity index. The ultimate goal of the present work was to determine the optimum level of the six independent variables in which an optimal aspirin nanoemulsion with desirable properties could be produced. The response surface analysis results clearly showed that the variability of two responses could be depicted as a linear function of the content of main emulsion compositions and ultrasonic processing variables. In the present investigation, it is evidently shown that ultrasound cavitation is a powerful yet promising approach in the controlled production of aspirin nanoemulsions with smaller average droplet size in a range of 200-300 nm and with a polydispersity index (PDI) of about 0.30. This study proved that the use of low frequency ultrasound is of considerable importance in the controlled production of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions in the drug delivery system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-345
Number of pages16
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Aspirin
  • Cavitation
  • Central composite design (CCD)
  • Nanoemulsion
  • Response surface methodology (RSM)
  • Ultrasound

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