Forearm pressure distribution during ambulation with elbow crutches

Parto Ghalehkhani, S. Parasuraman, M. K.A.Ahamed Khan, I. Elamvazuthi, Niranjan Debnath, Syed Saad Azhar Ali

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther

1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper studies the pressure distribution on the forearm and the hand palm during ambulation with forearm crutches. It also presents the design, modelling and development of a forearm crutch that is capable of eliminating the high pressure induced on patient's palm and forearm areas while gating; preventing other injuries to the nerves and muscles of the mentioned extremities. Eventually, one of the main objective of conducting this project is to make the patients feel less tired and more comfortable during crutch-aided ambulation. The design of the crutch is drawn using CATIA software, a CAD modelling package. The study on the developed design is to prove that it is of high quality and is more comfortable compared to available regular forearm crutches. It is developed using two experimental methods, namely: Energy Expenditure Index (EEI) and Electromyography (EMG). The experiments related to the mentioned methods have been conducted with the help of 10 healthy/normal volunteers. Also the crutch parts have been simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics Software. Lastly, a survey was prepared and its results are also provided in accordance with the way the patients feel about the developed design. The results of all four methods mentioned, show that the focal pressure on the patient's hand and forearm has been significantly reduced; also, the energy expenditure level has been dropped. It can be concluded that the developed crutch is of high quality and is more comfortable compared to regular forearm crutches.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2016 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing Automation, ROMA 2016
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9781509009282
Publication statusPublished - 2017
EventIEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing Automation 2016 - Ipoh, Malaysia
Duration: 25 Sept 201627 Sept 2016
Conference number: 2nd (Proceedings)


ConferenceIEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing Automation 2016
Abbreviated titleROMA 2016
Internet address


  • electromyography
  • modelling
  • pressure

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