Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms

Peter Raymond Gibson, Susan Joy Shepherd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

135 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient s functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols) - poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas - improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657 - 666
Number of pages10
JournalThe American Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume107
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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