Foam and drop penetration kinetics into loosely packed powder beds

Melvin Tan, Ling Shyong Wong, Kwan Hoe Lum, Karen Hapgood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Foam granulation is a new liquid delivery method for wet granulation, where the liquid binder is delivered as an aqueous foam, rather than as an atomised spray to the powder bed. This paper reports for the first time the similarities and differences between wet granulation via foamed and sprayed binder addition methods. The kinetics of single foam and single drop (of HPC and HPMC solutions) penetrations into loosely packed powder beds (of glass ballotini and lactose powders) were studied. Specific penetration time (defined as penetration time per unit of binder mass) and nucleation ratio (defined as the ratio of nuclei granule mass to liquid binder mass) were compared between foam and drop nucleation methods. The impact of particle size and binder concentration on both parameters was also studied. The results indicate that the foamed binder addition method allows a greater mass of binder fluid to be absorbed into the particle bed and uses less liquid binder to nucleate the same number of gram of powder, which indicates improved nucleation efficiency compared to the drop addition method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2826 - 2836
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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