Objectives: To review systematically data from randomized and nonrandomized studies of fluid bolus therapy in hospitalized children with septic shock. Data Sources: Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study Selection: We searched for randomized controlled studies of fluid bolus therapy in children with severe sepsis. We identified retrospective, prospective, and observational studies. We excluded studies of severe sepsis/septic shock due to a specific microbiological etiology, neonatal studies, and studies where advanced supportive therapies were unavailable. Data Extraction: Two authors screened articles for inclusion. Data Synthesis: We identified and analyzed three randomized controlled trials and eight nonrandomized studies. Heterogeneity precluded meta-Analysis. Two single-center Indian studies and one Brazilian study assessed three different fluid bolus therapy regimens in small cohorts with different populations, physiological triggers, and physiological and clinical outcomes. No randomized controlled trials compared fluid bolus therapy with alternative interventions, such as vasopressors. The nonrandomized studies were heterogeneous in populations, methodology, and outcome measures. No observed physiological differences were identified based on volume of fluid bolus therapy. Conclusions: There are only limited data to support the use of fluid bolus therapy in hospitalized children. Prospective observational data and randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate this therapy in resource rich settings.