Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and amsacrine: an effective salvage therapy option for acute myeloid leukemia at first relapse

Chun Yew Fong, George Grigoriadis, Jay Hocking, John Coutsouvelis, J L Muirhead, Philip Campbell, Eldho Paul, Patricia Ann Walker, Sharon Avery, Sushrut Patil, Andrew Spencer, Anthony Schwarer, Andrew Wei

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Improved therapeutic options for relapsing patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are urgently needed. Poor outcomes following salvage therapy have been reported in those with short initial remission duration, adverse risk karyotype, prior allograft, older age, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) AML and prior high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) induction therapy. We present a cohort of 58 patients (aged 18 - 70) treated with fl udarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and amsacrine (FLAG-amsacrine) as salvage chemotherapy for AML at fi rst relapse. 83 had received prior HiDAC-based therapy. The overall complete remission (CR/CR with incomplete blood count recovery [CRi]) rate was 59 , with median event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 6.9 and 10.6 months, respectively. FLAG-amsacrine was an eff ective bridge to allogeneic transplant with 38 successfully transplanted with excellent outcomes (median OS not reached). FLAG-amsacrine was also eff ective in elderly patients ( 60 years), with 61 achieving second remission. The regimen was well tolerated, with 30- and 42-day treatment-related mortality of 3.4 and 13.8 , respectively. Outcomes remained poor in those with short initial remission duration ( 6 months). We conclude that FLAG-amsacrine is a useful salvage option for AML at fi rst relapse.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336 - 341
Number of pages6
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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