Flower development: open questions and future directions

Frank Wellmer, John Lincoln Bowman, Brendan Davies, Cristina Ferrandiz, Jennifer C Fletcher, Robert G Franks, Emmanuelle Graciet, Veronica Gregis, Toshiro Ito, Thomas P Jack, Yuling Jiao, Martin M Kater, Hong Ma, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Nathanael Prunet, Jose Luism Riechmann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2014.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFlower Development: Methods and Protocols
EditorsJose Luis Riechmann, Frank Wellmer
Place of PublicationNew York NY USA
PublisherHumana Press
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9781461494072
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • ABC model
  • Floral evolution
  • Floral meristems
  • Flower development

Cite this

Wellmer, F., Bowman, J. L., Davies, B., Ferrandiz, C., Fletcher, J. C., Franks, R. G., Graciet, E., Gregis, V., Ito, T., Jack, T. P., Jiao, Y., Kater, M. M., Ma, H., Meyerowitz, E. M., Prunet, N., & Riechmann, J. L. (2014). Flower development: open questions and future directions. In J. L. Riechmann, & F. Wellmer (Eds.), Flower Development: Methods and Protocols (1 ed., pp. 103-124). (Methods in Molecular Biology; Vol. 1110). Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9408-9_5