Flexible two-dimensional indium tin oxide fabricated using a liquid metal printing technique

Robi S. Datta, Nitu Syed, Ali Zavabeti, Azmira Jannat, Md Mohiuddin, Md Rokunuzzaman, Bao Yue Zhang, Md Ataur Rahman, Paul Atkin, Kibret A. Messalea, Mohammad Bagher Ghasemian, Enrico Della Gaspera, Semonti Bhattacharyya, Michael S. Fuhrer, Salvy P. Russo, Chris F. McConville, Dorna Esrafilzadeh, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Torben Daeneke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)


Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a transparent conductor used in applications such as touch screens, smart windows and displays. A key limitation of ITO is its brittle nature, which prohibits its use in flexible electronics. The commercial deposition of high-quality ITO also currently relies on a costly vacuum manufacturing approach. Here we report the centimetre-scale synthesis of flexible two-dimensional ITO using a low-temperature liquid metal printing technique. The approach can directly deposit monolayer or bilayer ITO onto desired substrates, with the resulting bilayer samples offering a transparency above 99.3% and a sheet resistance as low as 5.4 kΩ □−1. We also show that the bilayer ITO features a stratified structure with a pronounced van der Waals spacing. To illustrate the capabilities of the technique, we develop a capacitive touch screen using centimetre-sized monolayer ITO sheets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-58
Number of pages8
JournalNature Electronics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2020

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