This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about the science of flavonoids and their effects on health will aid in establishing dietary recommendations for bioactive components such as flavonoids, a systematic review of the science of select flavonoid classes (i.e., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins) was presented. The objectives of the workshop were to 1) present and discuss current research on flavonoid intake and the relation between flavonoids and heart health; 2) develop information that could lead to expert consensus on the state-of-the-science of dietary intake of flavonoids on heart health; and 3) summarize and prioritize the research needed to establish the relations between specific flavonoids and heart health. Presentations included the basics of the biology of flavonoids, including the types and distribution in foods, analytical methodologies used to determine the amounts in foods, the bioavailability, the consumption patterns and potential biomarkers of intake, risk assessment and safety evaluation, structure/function claims, and the proposed mechanism(s) of the relation between certain flavonoids and heart health endpoints. Data presented support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health. Research gaps were identified to help advance the science.