Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), encoded by four genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) are tightly associated with many biological processes such as organ development, cell proliferation and migration. Studies over the past decades have validated the pivotal roles FGFRs play in tumorigenesis due to the regulation of diverse tumorigenesis-related processes, including cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, FGFR mutations in somatic cells leading to tumorigenesis and those in germ cells leading to developmental disorders are identical, suggesting that FGFR mutations result in different diseases due to their spatio-temporal expression. Thus, discoveries in developmental biology may also be applicable to cancer. FGFRs regulate the expression and/or the activity of a myriad of molecules (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Snail) that are tightly linked to tumorigenesis by four main signaling pathways (RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCgamma-PIP2, and STAT), as well as other minor branches. Epigenetic and genetic alteration of FGFR genes, including DNA methylation, histone remodeling, microRNA regulation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene missense mutations, amplification, and fusion of FGFRs with other genes, which result in gain or loss of FGFR function, have been identified in many types of cancer. In this review, we focus in particular on recent advances in the relationship between FGFR disorders and tumorigenesis.
|Pages (from-to)||13 - 31|
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Histology and Histopathology|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|