The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) exert their diverse (or pleiotropic) biological responses through the binding and activation of specific cell surface receptors (FGFRs). While FGFRs are known to initiate intracellular signaling through receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, the precise mechanisms by which the FGFRs regulate pleiotropic biological responses remain unclear. We now identify a new mechanism by which FGFR2 is able to regulate intracellular signaling and cellular responses. We show that FGFR2 is phosphorylated on serine 779 (S779) in response to FGF2. S779, which lies adjacent to the phospholipase C? binding site at Y766, provides a docking site for the 14-3-3 phosphoserine-binding proteins and is essential for the full activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Furthermore, S779 signaling is essential for promoting cell survival and proliferation in both Ba/F3 cells and BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. This new mode of FGFR2 phosphoserine signaling via the 14-3-3 proteins may provide an increased repertoire of signaling outputs to allow the regulation of pleiotropic biological responses. In this regard, we have identified conserved putative phosphotyrosine/phosphoserine motifs in the cytoplasmic domains of diverse cell surface receptors, suggesting that they may perform important functional roles beyond the FGFRs. Copyright ? 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.