Fertility outcomes after hysteroscopic niche resection compared with expectant management in women with a niche in the uterine cesarean scar

Chuqing He, Wei Xia, Li Yan, Yang Wang, Yuan Tian, Ben W. Mol, Jian Zhang, J. A.F. Huirne

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Objective: To determine whether hysteroscopic niche resection (HNR) and expectant management are suitable in women with fertility desire and a niche with a residual myometrium thickness (RMT) ≥ 2.5 mm. Study design: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China between September 2016 and December 2021. We reported the fertility outcomes between women (with fertility desire and a niche with RMT ≥ 2.5 mm) who received HNR or expectant management. Results: We studied 166 women, of whom 72 accepted HNR and 94 accepted expectant management. The HNR group included more symptomatic women, in terms of postmenstrual spotting or infertility. No differences were found regarding niche measures before treatment. The live birth rate was comparable in both groups (HNR versus expectant management as 55.5% versus 45.7%, risk ratio = 1.48, 95% Cl 0.80–2.75, p = 0.21). The pregnancy rate was higher in HNR group than that in expectant management group (n = 72.2% versus n = 56.4%, risk ratio = 2.01, 95% CI 1.04–3.88, p = 0.04). In a subgroup of women with infertility before entry in the study, HNR resulted in a significant higher live birth rate (p = 0.04) and pregnancy rate (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In women with infertility with a symptomatic niche with RMT ≥ 2.5 mm, HNR may be superior to expectant management. This retrospective cohort biased selection against a randomized study, our results still need to be validated in the future with larger clinical multicenter randomized controlled trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-142
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Expectant management
  • Fertility outcomes
  • Hysteroscopic niche resection
  • Live birth Rate
  • Niche
  • Pregnancy rate

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