Fast frequency response provision from large-scale hydrogen electrolyzers considering stack voltage-current nonlinearity

Mehdi Ghazavi Dozein, Antonella Maria De Corato, Pierluigi Mancarella

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7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the fast frequency response (FFR) capability of large-scale hydrogen electrolyzers (HEs) and their contribution to frequency control in low-inertia conditions, with focus on understanding the impacts of stack voltage-current (V-I) nonlinearity. We propose a HE stack model which includes a variable internal resistance to capture its V-I nonlinear behaviour. We then study the negative impacts of this nonlinearity on HE FFR capability and its mitigation solutions via proposing design specifications for the HE power-electronics interface (PEI) (DC-DC-AC) control. To do so, first we highlight the need for simultaneous stack voltage-current control in HE active power (FFR) control and propose a relevant cascaded V-I controller for stack-side converter via novel HE stack equivalencing with a capacitor. Second, we modify the DC-link voltage level in the HE PEI to avoid the stack V-I nonlinear effect. Simulation results show how the stack V-I nonlinearity might limit the HE FFR potential and how the proposed PEI controller represents an effective solution.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech - Conference Proceedings
EditorsJavier García-González, Sonja Wogrin
Place of PublicationPiscataway NJ USA
PublisherIEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781665435970
ISBN (Print)9781665411738
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
EventIEEE Madrid PowerTech 2021 - Madrid, Spain
Duration: 28 Jun 20212 Jul 2021 (Proceedings) (Website)


ConferenceIEEE Madrid PowerTech 2021
Abbreviated titlePowerTech 2021
Internet address


  • Fast frequency response
  • Large-scale hydrogen electrolyzer
  • Low-inertia power systems
  • Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyzer
  • Stack model nonlinearity

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