In vitro excretory/secretory products of 4-week (immature) and 8- week-old (mature) Fasciola hepatica parasites, derived from rats, were injected together with adjuvant into naive rats and mice. Resistance to infection was assessed in rats by counting adults in the bile ducts at 9 weeks, or in mice by recording deaths after oral challenge with a high dose of viable metacercariae. Exposure of rats to excretory/secretory products of immature F. hepatica conferred a significant degree of resistance which was comparable to the level of resistance induced following oral administration of a low number of metacercariae. No protection against infection was seen in rats injected with excretory/ secretory products from mature, bile duct-derived worms. In mice, no obvious mouse strain variation in susceptibility to first infection existed and hypothymic nude mice were as susceptible to infection as intact mice. As determined by protection against death, vaccination with excretory/ secretory products derived from immature F. hepatica was without effect in mice. I t is concluded that ‘host protective antigens’, at least for rats, were present in the excretory/secretory products of immature F. hepatica larvae.