Factors limiting quantitative phase retrieval in atomic-resolution differential phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy using a segmented detector

T. Mawson, D. J. Taplin, H. G. Brown, L. Clark, R. Ishikawa, T. Seki, Y. Ikuhara, N. Shibata, D. M. Paganin, M. J. Morgan, M. Weyland, T. C. Petersen, S. D. Findlay

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging of materials in atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using segmented detectors is limited by various factors, including coherent and incoherent aberrations, detector positioning and uniformity, and scan-distortion. By comparing experimental case studies of monolayer and few-layer graphene with image simulations, we explore which parameters require the most precise characterisation for reliable and quantitative interpretation of the reconstructed phases. Coherent and incoherent lens aberrations are found to have the most significant impact. For images over a large field of view, the impact of noise and non-periodic boundary conditions are appreciable, but in this case study have less of an impact than artefacts introduced by beam deflections coupling to beam scanning (imperfect tilt-shift purity).

Original languageEnglish
Article number113457
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Differential phase contrast
  • Graphene
  • Image simulation
  • Quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy
  • Segmented detectors

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