Factors influencing lower extremity amputation outcomes in people with active foot ulceration in regional Australia: A retrospective cohort study

Peta Ellen Tehan, Morgan Brian Hawes, Joanne Hurst, Mathew Sebastian, Benjamin John Peterson, Vivienne Helaine Chuter

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Australia has the second highest rate of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation (LEA) globally. Australia's large geographical size is one of the biggest challenges facing limb preservation services and may be contributing to LEA. The aim of this study was to determine what factors contribute to the likelihood of LEA in people with active foot ulceration in regional Australia. This retrospective cohort study audited patients with active foot ulceration in a multidisciplinary high risk foot service (HRFS) in regional Australia. Neurological, vascular and wound characteristics were systematically extracted, along with demographic information. Participants were followed for at least 12 months until healing or LEA occurred. Correlations between LEA and clinical and demographic characteristics were assessed using the Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and chi squared test for independence. Significant variables (p < 0.05) were included in the model. Direct logistic regression assessed the independent contribution of significantly correlated variables on the likelihood of LEA. Of note, 1876 records were hand screened with 476 participants (25%) meeting the inclusion criteria. Geographical distance from the HRFS, toe systolic pressure (TSP), diabetes and infection were all significantly correlated with LEA and included in the logistic regression model. TSP decrease of 1 mmHg (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), increased geographical distance (1 km) from HRFS (OR 1.006, 95% CI 1.001–1.01) infection (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.06–4.07) and presence of diabetes (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.12–12.65) were all significantly associated with increased likelihood of LEA. HRFS should account for the disparity in outcomes between patients living in close proximity to their service, compared to those in rural areas. Optimal management of diabetes, vascular perfusion and control of infection may also contribute to preventing LEA in people with active foot ulceration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-33
Number of pages10
JournalWound Repair and Regeneration
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

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