Factors associated with long-term functional and psychological outcomes in persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Rodney Judson, Pearl Chung, Melinda Truesdale, Alaeldin Elmalik, Mary P. Galea

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To examine factors impacting long-term functional and psychological outcomes in persons with moderatesevere traumatic brain injury. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study (n = 103) assessed the long-term (up to 5 years) impact of traumatic brain injury on participants' current activity and restriction in participation using validated questionnaires. Results: Participants' median age was 49.5 years (interquartile range (IQR), the majority were male (77%), and 49% had some form of previous rehabilitation. The common causes of traumatic brain injury were falls (42%) and motor vehicle accidents (27%). Traumatic brain injury-related symptoms were: pain/headache (47%), dizziness (36%), bladder/bowel impairment (34%), and sensoryperceptual deficits (34%). Participants reported minimal change in their physical function and cognition (Functional Assessment Measure: motor (median 102, IQR 93.111) and cognition (median 89, IQR 78.95)). Participants were welladjusted to community-living; however, they reported high levels of depression. Factors significantly associated with poorer current level of functioning/well-being included: older age (≥ 60 years), presence of traumatic brain injury-related symptoms, a lack of previous rehabilitation and those classified in "severe disability categories" at admission. Caregivers reported high levels of strain and burden (55%). Conclusion: Cognitive and psychosocial problems are more commonly reported than physical disability in the longerterm. A greater focus on participation and ageing with disability in these persons is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-448
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016


  • Disability
  • Outcome
  • Participation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Traumatic brain injury

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