Factors associated with arrival by ambulance for patients with stroke: a multicentre, national data linkage study

Amminadab L. Eliakundu, Dominique A. Cadilhac, Joosup Kim, Nadine E. Andrew, Christopher F. Bladin, Rohan Grimley, Helen M. Dewey, Geoffrey A. Donnan, Kelvin Hill, Christopher R. Levi, Sandy Middleton, Craig S. Anderson, Natasha A. Lannin, Monique F. Kilkenny, on behalf of the Stroke123 investigators and AuSCR Consortium

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Hospital arrival via ambulance influences treatment of acute stroke. We aimed to determine the factors associated with use of ambulance and access to evidence-based care among patients with stroke. Methods: Patients with first-ever strokes from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (2010–2013) were linked with administrative data (emergency, hospital admissions). Multilevel, multivariable regression models were used to determine patient, clinical and system factors associated with arrival by ambulance. Results: Among the 6,262 patients with first-ever stroke, 4,737 (76%) arrived by ambulance (52% male; 80% ischaemic). Patients who were older, frailer, with comorbidities or were unable to walk on admission (stroke severity) were more likely to arrive by ambulance to hospital. Compared to those using other means of transport, those who used ambulances arrived to hospital sooner after stroke onset (minutes, 124 vs 397) and were more likely to receive reperfusion therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.27). Conclusion: Patients with stroke who use ambulances arrived faster and were more likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared to those using personal transport. Further public education about using ambulance services at all times, instead of personal transport when stroke is suspected is needed to optimise access to time critical care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-173
Number of pages7
JournalAustralasian Emergency Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Acute stroke
  • Ambulance
  • Emergency medicine
  • Health services
  • Patient factors
  • Thrombolysis

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