Extreme properties of double networked ionogel electrolytes for flexible and durable energy storage devices

Harpalsinh H. Rana, Jeong Hee Park, Etienne Ducrot, Hun Park, Manikantan Kota, Tae Hee Han, Jun Young Lee, Jaeyun Kim, Ji Heung Kim, Patrick Howlett, Maria Forsyth, Douglas MacFarlane, Ho Seok Park

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Achieving both performances and functionalities of energy storage devices at extreme conditions remains a critical challenge due to the property trade-offs of materials. Here, we demonstrate highly ion-conducting, stretchable, and ultradurable double network (DN) ionogel films, where ionic liquids are confined in chemically-coupled DNs consisting of hard and soft polymers, for high-temperature flexible supercapacitors (hfSCs). Both mechanical and electrochemical integrities at high temperatures are attributed to the unique DN structure and thermally activated ionic transport of the ionogels. Even at 100 °C, the DN ionogel film demonstrates remarkable properties, such as the ionic conductivity of 36.8 mS cm −1 , the tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, stretchability of 500%, and dissipation energy of 216 kJ m −3 . Thus, the hfSCs achieve the highest energy density of 51.0 Wh kg −1 at 180 °C among previous solid-state SCs, showing extreme durability of 91% over 100,000 cycles and functional hybrid system at both elevated temperatures and bent states.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-205
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Storage Materials
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019


  • Extreme property
  • Flexible supercapacitor
  • Functional gels
  • High temperature device
  • Ionogels

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