Extraction of carotenoids from tomato pomace via water-induced hydrocolloidal complexation

Jayesree Nagarajan, Hang Pui Kay, Nagendra Prasad Krishnamurthy, Nagasundara Ramanan Ramakrishnan, Turki M.S. Aldawoud, Charis M. Galanakis, Ooi Chien Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Agro-industrial waste is a largely untapped natural resource of bioactive compounds including carotenoids and pectin. However, conventional solvent extraction involves the excessive use of organic solvents, costly equipment, and tedious operation. These limitations of conventional extraction methods could be prospectively overcome by the carotenoid–pectin hydrocolloidal complexation. The complexation of lycopene and pectin was efficiently promoted in an aqueous environment, resulting in the colloidal complexes that can be subsequently recovered by sedimentation or centrifugation. In this study, the potential of carotenoid–pectin complexation on tomato pomace containing carotenoids and pectin was evaluated. Tomato pomace is a rich source of lycopene, β-carotene as well as pectin, making it suitable as the raw material for the carotenoid extraction. The extraction of carotenoid and pectin from tomato pomace was optimized using response surface methodology. The maximum recovery was 9.43 mg carotenoid fractions/100 g tomato pomace, while the purity of carotenoid-rich fractions was 92%. The antioxidant capacity of carotenoids extracted from the complexation method was found to be higher than that from the solvent extraction method. Moreover, extraction yield and antioxidant capacity of carotenoid obtained from the carotenoid–pectin complexation were comparable to that from solvent extraction. The carotenoid–pectin complexation is a promising green approach to valorize agro by-products for the extraction of valuable carotenoids.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1019
Number of pages14
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jul 2020


  • Antioxidant
  • Carotenoid–pectin complexation
  • Lycopene
  • Pectin
  • Tomato pomace

Cite this