The term oligometastases was formulated to describe an intermediate state between widespread metastases and locally confined disease. The standard of care in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is systemic therapy; however, in patients with solitary or limited metastases, aggressive local therapies may potentially prolong survival. The literature suggests a survival benefit with surgical metastasectomy, with a reported 5-year survival as high as 45 in those who achieve complete resection. More recently, an expanding body of evidence supports the role of stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy for the treatment of oligometastatic renal cell carcinoma and early results demonstrate comparable local control rates with surgery. There is also increasing interest in the abscopal and immunologic effects of localized radiation. With the proliferation of newer targeted agents and immunomodulatory agents, current work is addressing the optimization of patient selection and avenues towards sequencing and combining the various treatment options.