Extracorporeal treatment for chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinine poisoning: Systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup

Ingrid Berling, Joshua D. King, Greene Shepherd, Robert S. Hoffman, Badria Alhatali, Valery Lavergne, Darren M. Roberts, Sophie Gosselin, Gabrielle Wilson, Thomas D. Nolin, Marc Ghannoum, for the EXTRIP workgroup

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Abstract

Background Although chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinine are used for a range of medical conditions, recent research suggested a potential role in treating COVID-19. The resultant increase in prescribing was accompanied by an increase in adverse events, including severe toxicity and death. The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup sought to determine the effect of and indications for extracorporeal treatments in cases of poisoning with these drugs. Methods We conducted systematic reviews of the literature, screened studies, extracted data, and summarized findings following published EXTRIP methods. Results A total of 44 studies (three in vitro studies, two animal studies, 28 patient reports or patient series, and 11 pharmacokinetic studies) met inclusion criteria regarding the effect of extracorporeal treatments. Toxicokinetic or pharmacokinetic analysis was available for 61 patients (13 chloroquine, three hydroxychloroquine, and 45 quinine). Clinical data were available for analysis from 38 patients, including 12 with chloroquine toxicity, one with hydroxychloroquine toxicity, and 25 with quinine toxicity. All three drugs were classified as non-dialyzable (not amenable to clinically significant removal by extracorporeal treatments). The available data do not support using extracorporeal treatments in addition to standard care for patients severely poisoned with either chloroquine or quinine (strong recommendation, very low quality of evidence). Although hydroxychloroquine was assessed as being non-dialyzable, the clinical evidence was not sufficient to support a formal recommendation regarding the use of extracorporeal treatments for this drug. Conclusions On the basis of our systematic review and analysis, the EXTRIP workgroup recommends against using extracorporeal methods to enhance elimination of these drugs in patients with severe chloroquine or quinine poisoning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2475-2489
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume31
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes

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