Extrachromosomal and integrated genetic elements in Clostridium difficile

Jacob Matthew Amy, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen, causing gastrointestinal disease in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy. This bacterium contains many extrachromosomal and integrated genetic elements, with recent genomic work giving new insights into their variability and distribution. This review summarises research conducted in this area over the last 30 years and includes a discussion on the functional contributions of these elements to host cell phenotypes, as well as encompassing recent genome sequencing studies that have contributed to our understanding of their evolution and dissemination. Importantly, we also include a review of antibiotic resistance determinants associated with mobile genetic elements since antibiotic use and the spread of antibiotic resistance are currently of significant global clinical importance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97 - 110
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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