Extracellular Granzyme A Promotes Colorectal Cancer Development by Enhancing Gut Inflammation

Llipsy Santiago, Marta Castro, Rebeca Sanz-Pamplona, Marcela Garzón, Ariel Ramirez-Labrada, Elena Tapia, Víctor Moreno, Elena Layunta, Gabriel Gil-Gómez, Marta Garrido, Raúl Peña, Pilar M. Lanuza, Laura Comas, Paula Jaime-Sanchez, Iratxe Uranga-Murillo, Rosa del Campo, Pablo Pelegrín, Eric Camerer, Luis Martínez-Lostao, Guillermo MuñozJosé A. Uranga, Anabel Alcalde, Eva M. Galvez, Angel Ferrandez, Phillip I. Bird, Sunil Metkar, Maykel A. Arias, Julian Pardo

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1 Citation (Scopus)


If not properly regulated, the inflammatory immune response can promote carcinogenesis, as evident in colorectal cancer (CRC). Aiming to gain mechanistic insight into the link between inflammation and CRC, we perform transcriptomics analysis of human CRC, identifying a strong correlation between expression of the serine protease granzyme A (GzmA) and inflammation. In a dextran sodium sulfate and azoxymethane (DSS/AOM) mouse model, deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of extracellular GzmA both attenuate gut inflammation and prevent CRC development, including the initial steps of cell transformation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Mechanistically, extracellular GzmA induces NF-κB-dependent IL-6 production in macrophages, which in turn promotes STAT3 activation in cultured CRC cells. Accordingly, colon tissues from DSS/AOM-treated, GzmA-deficient animals present reduced levels of pSTAT3. By identifying GzmA as a proinflammatory protease that promotes CRC development, these findings provide information on mechanisms that link immune cell infiltration to cancer progression and present GzmA as a therapeutic target for CRC. Santiago et al. show that extracellular granzyme A (GzmA) contributes to gut inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC) development by promoting IL-6 production in macrophages. Therapeutic inhibition of GzmA attenuates inflammation and CRC development, suggesting that GzmA could be useful to treat gut inflammation and prevent CRC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107847
Number of pages16
JournalCell Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2020


  • colorectal cancer
  • extracellular
  • granzyme
  • gut
  • IL6
  • inflammation
  • macrophage
  • STAT3

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