Extending tittle's control balance theory to account for victimization

Alex R. Piquero, Matthew Hickman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Relying on statements from Tittle's control balance theory regarding both control deficits and surpluses, the authors developed a framework for understanding how control balance theory could account for victimization. Then, using data collected for the dual purpose of measuring control ratios and victimization experiences, the authors tested the hypothesis that control imbalances predicted victimization. Segmented, nonlinear regression results indicated that even after controlling for routine lifestyle activity and demographic variables, control surpluses and control deficits were positively associated with the probability of both general and predative victimization. Future theoretical and research directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-301
Number of pages20
JournalCriminal Justice and Behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Control balance theory
  • Offending
  • Routine activities
  • Victimization

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