Transfection of the human CD4 molecule into mouse cells does not confer susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection.10 Expression of the human CD4 molecule in transgenic mice was seen to offer some new possibilities. However, transgenic mouse T cells expressing either the human CD4 receptor, or a hybrid human/mouse CD4 receptor alone or in conjunction with human major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, were refractory to in vitro HIV-1 infection. In addition, no infection was observed after in vivo HIV:inoculation to mice of these various transgenic lines. Injection of recombinant gp160 viral protein to the transgenic mice did not alter their T and B cell populations. The existence of a dominant block in mouse cells that prevents HIV entry is discussed.