Exploring the spectrum of late effects following radical orchidectomy for stage I testicular seminoma: a systematic review of the literature

Jennifer A. Soon, Angelyn Anton, Javier Torres, Ruth Lawrence, Phillip Parente, Joseph McKendrick, Ian D. Davis, Carmel Pezaro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Testicular seminomas occur in young men and are highly curable. Toxicities following treatment for men with extensive stage II-III seminomas may cause long-term morbidities. However, it is not clear whether the risk of late effects also increases following surgery for testis-confined seminoma. In this systematic review, we examined the available literature regarding the incidence of late effects in our target population of patients with stage I seminoma treated with orchidectomy alone. Method: Publications were identified through an electronic literature search using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychInfo databases, identifying cohorts treated for stage I seminoma. Data on late effects were collected and classified as physical or psychological. Results: Six hundred and four articles were screened to identify 100 studies. In the target population, available evidence suggests no increased risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, or renal dysfunction compared to the general population. Sperm counts were initially lower than an age-matched cohort; however, counts normalised when re-assessed 5 years later. Data were not specifically reported for the target population regarding bone health, second malignancy, hypogonadism, fertility and all psychological domains. Heterogeneity of study design and reporting methods contributed to uncertainty regarding the true incidence and clinical significance of late effects. Conclusions: The curability of stage I seminoma and the wide range of potential late effects of treatment suggest the need for long-term monitoring alongside standard cancer surveillance. Important data are needed on the prevalence of late effects, specifically related to testicular cancer survivors undergoing surveillance following orchidectomy. Implications for cancer survivors: Awareness and screening for relevant late effects may prevent further morbidity in men treated for stage I seminoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-382
Number of pages10
JournalSupportive Care in Cancer
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Germ cell tumour
  • Late effects
  • Seminoma
  • Survivorship
  • Systematic review
  • Testicular cancer

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