Explaining hyper-sensitivity and hypo-responsivity in autism with a common predictive coding-based mechanism

Sander Van De Cruys, Kelsey Perrykkad, Jakob Hohwy

Research output: Contribution to journalComment / DebateOtherpeer-review

Abstract

Ward’s signal detection theory-based framework elucidates some aspects of interindividual differences in sensitivity, but, we argue, obscures others. Specifically, it disregards the important challenge of inferring the meaning of sensory inputs. Within Bayesian predictive coding accounts, the meaning is given by inferences to more deeply hidden causes of sensory inputs and is generally the basis for initiating context-appropriate (e.g., social) behavior. As such, when inference of hierarchical causes is hampered, as accounts of autism based on deficient precision estimation imply, a form of hyporesponsivity can emerge (together with the hypersensitivity already highlighted by Ward).

Original languageEnglish
JournalCognitive Neuroscience
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • Autism
  • hierarchical bayesian inference
  • hypersensitivity
  • predictive coding

Cite this

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Explaining hyper-sensitivity and hypo-responsivity in autism with a common predictive coding-based mechanism. / Van De Cruys, Sander; Perrykkad, Kelsey; Hohwy, Jakob.

In: Cognitive Neuroscience, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment / DebateOtherpeer-review

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AB - Ward’s signal detection theory-based framework elucidates some aspects of interindividual differences in sensitivity, but, we argue, obscures others. Specifically, it disregards the important challenge of inferring the meaning of sensory inputs. Within Bayesian predictive coding accounts, the meaning is given by inferences to more deeply hidden causes of sensory inputs and is generally the basis for initiating context-appropriate (e.g., social) behavior. As such, when inference of hierarchical causes is hampered, as accounts of autism based on deficient precision estimation imply, a form of hyporesponsivity can emerge (together with the hypersensitivity already highlighted by Ward).

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