Experimental verification of the methodology to estimate transit dwell time from the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual

Yaiza Montero-Lamas, Alfonso Orro, Margarita Novales, Graham Currie, James Reynolds

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther


This study compares the theoretical and actual dwell times of urban buses in A Coruña, Spain, and trams in Melbourne, Australia, to evaluate the accuracy of the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual's estimations. The theoretical dwell times were calculated using a methodology based on the Manual, following the steps indicated in the provided spreadsheet. Actual dwell times were obtained through processing of video recordings and transit database. The results show that the estimated dwell time for A Coruña buses is higher than the actual time, while the theoretical estimation for Melbourne trams seems to be underestimated. The possible reasons for these differences have also been analyzed. This study identifies and suggests several possible improvements to the Manual methodology and spreadsheet, such as reconsidering default values and the application of boarding lost time within the dwell time. In addition, the passenger service time formula in the spreadsheet could be refined to more accurately reflect the Manual's description. Overall, the study provides insights into the reliability of TCQSM estimations and proposes some easily traceable and fixable changes to improve the Manual's next edition and future transit planning studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationXV Conference on Transport Engineering, CIT2023
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventConference on Transport Engineering 2023 - San Cristobal de La Laguna, Spain
Duration: 14 Jun 202316 Jun 2023
Conference number: 15th
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/transportation-research-procedia/vol/71/suppl/C (Proceedings)

Publication series

NameTransportation Research Procedia
PublisherElsevier BV
ISSN (Print)2352-1457


ConferenceConference on Transport Engineering 2023
Abbreviated titleCIT 2023
CitySan Cristobal de La Laguna
Internet address


  • bus
  • Dwell time
  • tram
  • Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual
  • transit operation

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