Experimental measurement of vibration of liquid droplet at low bond numbers using ESPI

Prasanna S. Gandhi, S. A. Deepak, Prashant Agrawal, Salil S. Kulkarni, Adrian Neild

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The vibration of droplets finds multiple applications in inkjet printing, combustion sprays, drop atomization etc. In many of these processes, the primary interest is to estimate the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating drops. Previous works show extensive characterization of vibrating droplets in a gravity dominated regime, where Bond numbers (ratio of gravitational and surface tension effects) are greater than 2. In the present work, vibrations of small size droplets, in the capillary regime, with Bond number in the range 0.24–1.37 are considered on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The surface of the vibrating drop at resonance is characterized using a novel interferometric method: Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is explored. The resonant frequencies obtained through the interferometric patterns of ESPI is found to be in good agreement with a theoretical model considering a 1D capillary-gravity wave.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
EditorsArun K. Saha, Debopam Das, Rajesh Srivastava, P. K. Panigrahi, K. Muralidhar
Place of PublicationUttar Pradesh India
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9788132227434
ISBN (Print)9788132227410
Publication statusPublished - 2017
EventConference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power 2014 - Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India
Duration: 12 Dec 201414 Dec 2014
Conference number: 5th International / 41st National

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print)2195-4356
ISSN (Electronic)2195-4364


ConferenceConference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power 2014
Abbreviated titleFMFP 2014
Internet address


  • Bond number
  • Droplet
  • ESPI
  • Interferometry
  • Vibration

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