Experimental evidence of swell signatures in Airborne L5/E5a GNSS-reflectometry

Joan Francesc Munoz-Martin, Raul Onrubia, Daniel Pascual, Hyuk Park, Adriano Camps, Christoph Rüdiger, Jeffrey Walker, Alessandra Monerris

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12 Citations (Scopus)


As compared to GPS L1C/A signals, L5/E5a Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) improves the spatial resolution due to the narrower auto-correlation function. Furthermore, the larger transmitted power (+3 dB), and correlation gain (+10 dB) allow the reception of weaker reflected signals. If directive antennas are used, very short incoherent integration times are enough to achieve good signal-to-noise ratios, allowing the reception of multiple specular reflection points without the blurring induced by long incoherent integration times. This study presents for the first time experimental evidence of the wind and swell waves signatures in the GNSS-R waveforms, and it performs a statistical analysis, a time-domain analysis, and a frequency-domain analysis for a unique data set of waveforms collected by the UPC MIR instrument during a series of flights over the Bass Strait, Australia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1759
Number of pages18
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • Galileo
  • GNSS-R
  • GPS
  • Sea
  • Swell
  • Waveform
  • Waves

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