Experimental characterization of clad microstructure and its correlation with residual stresses

Santanu Paul, Khushahal Thool, Ramesh Singh, Indradev Samajdar, Wenyi Yan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The repair of dies and molds used in the automobile industry by laser cladding (LC) is an important and emerging trend in additive manufacturing (AM) today. LC provides an alternative to the traditional deposition techniques which are ad-hoc and imprecise for powder metallurgical steels used in the repair of these components. The current study focuses on understanding the correlation between microstructure and the residual stress developed due to the deposition process. The microstructure was characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis and the residual stress was measured using micro focus X-ray diffraction technique. The EBSD study revealed that the relative difference in martensite phase fraction resulted in local grain misorientations. A thermomechanical finite element (FE) model was also developed to predict the magnitude and nature of residual stresses in the component. The FE model calculated the stress field by considering only the thermal strain developed between the clad and substrate layers. The FE model was able to capture the nature of residual stresses in the clad and substrate where the thermomechanical effects dominate. The study revealed the importance of incorporating the effect of metallurgical transformation in FE model to accurately predict the residual stress variation in the substrate region.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication45th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 45
Subtitle of host publicationJune 4-8, 2017, Los Angeles, California, USA [proceedings]
EditorsLihui Wang, Livan Fratini, Albert J. Shih
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2017
EventSME North American Manufacturing Research Conference 2017 - Los Angeles, United States of America
Duration: 4 Jun 20178 Jun 2017
Conference number: 45th

Publication series

NameProcedia Manufacturing
PublisherElsevier BV
ISSN (Electronic)2351-9789


ConferenceSME North American Manufacturing Research Conference 2017
Abbreviated titleNAMRC 2017
CountryUnited States of America
CityLos Angeles


  • EBSD
  • Laser cladding
  • Repair
  • Thermomechanical finite element model
  • X-ray diffraction

Cite this