Exercise mediated protection of diabetic heart through modulation of microRNA mediated molecular pathways

Jason Kar Sheng Lew, James T. Pearson, Daryl O. Schwenke, Rajesh Katare

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction. Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the term used to describe the presence of heart disease specifically in diabetic patients. Despite significant advances in medical research and long clinical history of anti-diabetic medications, the risk of heart failure in people with diabetes never declines. Interestingly, sustainable and long-term exercise regimen has emerged as an effective synergistic therapy to combat the cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying this protection remain unclear. This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia- and insulin resistance-mediated DHD with a detailed discussion on the role of different intensities of exercise in mitigating these molecular alterations in diabetic heart. In particular, we provide the possible role of exercise on microRNAs, the key molecular regulators of several pathophysiological processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10
Number of pages20
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2017

Keywords

  • Cardioprotection
  • Cross-talk effect
  • Diabetic heart disease
  • Exercise
  • Hyperglycaemia
  • Insulin resistance
  • MicroRNA

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