Evolution in the cycles of life

John Bowman, Keiko Sakakibara, Chihiro Furumizu, Tom Dierschke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


The life cycles of eukaryotes alternate between haploid and diploid phases, which are initiated by meiosis and gamete fusion, respectively. In both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi and chlorophyte algae, the haploid-to-diploid transition is regulated by a pair of paralogous homeodomain protein encoding genes. That a common genetic program controls the haploid-to-diploid transition in phylogenetically disparate eukaryotic lineages suggests this may be the ancestral function for homeodomain proteins. Multicellularity has evolved independently in many eukaryotic lineages in either one or both phases of the life cycle. Organisms, such as land plants, exhibiting a life cycle whereby multicellular bodies develop in both the haploid and diploid phases are often referred to as possessing an alternation of generations. We review recent progress on understanding the genetic basis for the land plant alternation of generations and highlight the roles that homeodomain-encoding genes may have played in the evolution of complex multicellularity in this lineage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-154
Number of pages22
JournalAnnual Review of Genetics
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2016


  • Alternation of generations
  • Apogamy
  • Apospory
  • Land plant evolution
  • Multicellularity
  • TALE homeodomain

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