Evapotranspiration measurement and estimation of crop coefficient for native plant species of green roof in the tropics

Ming Fai Chow, Muhammad Fadhlullah Abu Bakar, Jee Khai Wong, Lloyd Ling

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


    Extensive green roof is one of the sustainable urban stormwater management alternatives to manage and mitigate the urban surface runoff. In order to implement green roofs more effectively, suitable plant species and substrate components for tropical climate must be identified. The aim of this study is to investigate the evapotranspiration (ET) behaviors in extensive green roofs based on different substrate types and local native plant species. Four green roof test beds containing pro-mixing pot and burn soils were each vegetated with Axonopus Compressus (grass) and Portu-laca Grandiflora (sedum). A weather station with soil moisture sensors was installed to measure the weather and soil moisture data. The results showed that the mean ET rates for grass-pot soil, sedum-pot soil, grass-burn soil and sedum-burn soil were 1.32 ± 0.41 mm/day, 2.31 ± 0.72 mm/day, 1.47 ± 0.39 mm/day and 2.31 ± 0.43 mm/day, respectively. It is noted that environmental parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation and wind speed showed significantly positive relationship (p value <0.01) with ET rates of green roofs except relative humidity. The crop coefficients (Ks ) for the studied green roof plant species are estimated based on actual and reference evapotranspiration rates. The sedum planted in burn soil showed the highest crop coefficient (0.64), followed by sedum in pot soil (0.62), grass in burn soil (0.39) and grass in pot soils (0.37), respectively. The findings in this study also showed that substrate with better water retention capacity generally improved the Ks values.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1669
    Number of pages13
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2021


    • Evapotranspiration
    • Extensive green roof
    • Green infrastructures
    • Sedum
    • Tropical

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