Evaluation of titanium direct bonding mechanism

F. Baudin, V. Delaye, C. Guedj, N. Chevalier, D. Mariolle, B. Imbert, J. M. Fabbri, L. Di Cioccio, Y. Bréchet

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperOther

1 Citation (Scopus)


Direct metal bonding represents an advanced joining technology that allows vertical stacking with electrical conduction and even heat dissipation. For most metals used as bonding layers, direct bonding when operating under ambient conditions involves metal oxides. The bonding interface saddles with a trapped oxide layer that might affect electrical conduction and even complete sealing of bonding interface. Titanium especially because of its high affinity with oxygen, makes oxide free direct bonding very difficult. In the mean time, the remarkable getter effect of Ti matrix allows the dissolution of oxygen during post bonding annealing. In this paper, the bonding limits with regards to the titanium thickness have been investigated. The key role of layer roughness on the bonding quality and energy has been pointed out. A titanium thickness below 10nm appears as a limit for an oxide free bonding.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSemiconductor Wafer Bonding 12
Subtitle of host publicationScience, Technology, and Applications
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology, and Applications 2012 - Honolulu, United States of America
Duration: 7 Oct 201212 Oct 2012
Conference number: 12th

Publication series

NameECS Transactions
ISSN (Print)1938-5862
ISSN (Electronic)1938-6737


ConferenceInternational Symposium on Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science, Technology, and Applications 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America

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