Evaluation of the efficacy of radiation-modifying compounds using γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks

Li-Jeen Mah, Christian Orlowski, Katherine Ververis, Raja S Vasireddy, Assam El-Osta, Tom C. Karagiannis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Radiation therapy is a widely used therapeutic approach for cancer. To improve the efficacy of radiotherapy there is an intense interest in combining this modality with two broad classes of compounds, radiosensitizers and radioprotectors. These either enhance tumour-killing efficacy or mitigate damage to surrounding non-malignant tissue, respectively. Radiation exposure often results in the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, which are marked by the induction of H2AX phosphorylation to generate γH2AX. In addition to its essential role in DDR signalling and coordination of double-strand break repair, the ability to visualize and quantitate γH2AX foci using immunofluorescence microscopy techniques enables it to be exploited as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy in a range of cell types and tissues. This review will explore the emerging applicability of γH2AX as a marker for monitoring the effectiveness of radiation-modifying compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
Number of pages11
JournalGenome Integrity
Volume2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2011

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