Evaluating the host defense responses in oil palm to complex biocontrol endophyte–pathogen–host plant interaction via Fluidigm® real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Yiing Yng Chow, Sadequr Rahman, Adeline Su Yien Ting

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    3 Citations (Scopus)


    Induction of plant defense mechanisms by endophyte is an attractive biocontrol tool against plant pathogen in modern sustainable agricultural practices. However, knowledge on biochemical and genetic basis of defense responses due to plant–endophyte–pathogen interaction is still limited. This study aimed to determine the defense responses of oil palm to this complex interaction with respective endophytes (Diaporthe phaseolorum WAA02, Trichoderma asperellum T2, Penicillium citrinum BTF08) and pathogen (Ganoderma boninense). The defense responses were determined based on assays of the host-induced enzymes and further complemented with Fluidigm® real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Fluidigm® RT-PCR is a time-saving technique that allows the expression of multiple genes in multiple samples on a single chip array. Biochemical results showed that the levels of host defense enzymes (PO, PPO, PAL, TPC) were detected in co-inoculated plants, and these results were supported by RT-PCR. The Fluidigm® RT-PCR further revealed that of the 14 defense-related genes observed, induction of β-1-3-glucanase (EgGLC), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and nitrate reductase (EgNR) were possibly responsible for the biochemical responses. This study highlights the use of Fluidigm® RT-PCR for the first time, to study defense responses elicited from the interaction of host plant with endophytes and pathogen.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)148-157
    Number of pages10
    JournalBiological Control
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


    • Biocontrol
    • Dynamic array
    • Endophyte
    • Ganoderma boninense
    • Gene expression
    • Plant defense

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