Evaluating hospital tools and services that were co-produced with patients: A rapid review

Siew Lim, Heather Morris, Bengianni Pizzirani, Duncan Kajewski, Wai Kit Lee, Helen Skouteris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

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PURPOSE: To describe the process and outcomes of services or products co-produced with patients in hospital settings. DATA SOURCES: Database searches on Medline, CINAHL and Business Source between 2008 and 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that evaluate the products of co-production in hospital settings. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary outcome is the individual and organizational outcomes resulting from co-production. Study characteristics, co-production process, level of engagement and intensity of engagement were also extracted. RESULTS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 13 studies were included. Types of co-produced outputs were health services and care processes, tools and resources, and technology-based products, such as mobile application. Most studies engaged patients at a consultative or involvement level, with only four studies engaging patients as partners. Moderate-to-high acceptability and usability by patients and health services were reported for co-produced outputs. Organizational outcomes were also reported qualitatively as producing various positive effects, such as improved communication and diagnostic process. Positive patient outcomes were reported for co-produced outputs in qualitative (e.g. improved social support) and quantitative results (e.g. reduction of clinic wait time). No patient clinical outcomes were reported. CONCLUSION: Co-produced outputs have moderate-to-high acceptability, usability or uptake. There is insufficient evidence on other organizational or patient outcomes due to the lack of reporting of outcomes in co-production. Future research should focus on the outcomes (i.e. effects on patients and health service providers), not just the output of co-production. This is critical to provide feedback to advance the knowledge and implementation of co-production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-239
Number of pages9
JournalInternational journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • co-creation
  • co-production
  • health services
  • patient engagement
  • patient involvement

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